Welcome to the website of the GSRE Dataset

Welcome to the website of the GSRE - Global State Revenues and Expenditures dataset!

Since 2019 gsre.info is the official website of the GSRE dataset.

The GSRE dataset - developed at the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies since 2009 - is a novel data collection, which is based on historical documents from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Archives. This dataset improves the coverage and accuracy of state budget data for most authoritarian regimes and some democracies since the end of World War II. Version 1.0 of GSRE includes 39 unique indicators covering major aspects of state finance for 161 countries between 1946 and 2006. In addition, GSRE also provides selected data on nine different indicators of public and government employment. More details on the dataset’s creation, coding, and coverage can be found under User Manual (Richter and Lucas, 2016).

Between 2011 and 2013 the GSRE dataset was initially funded by the German Research Foundation / Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) with a grant (RI-2023/2-1) for the project “Stability and Change of Authoritarian Regimes: A Systematic Comparison of Institutional and Material Conditions” at the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.

The GSRE dataset is the winner of the 2017 Lijphart/Przeworski/Verba Data Set Award by APSA’s Comparative Politics Section.

We constantly work on the extension and improvement of the GSRE dataset. If you have collected similar historical data on specific countries or a group of countries please contact us for potential collaboration. Please send feedback and all inquiries to thomas.richter (at) giga-hamburg (dot) de.

The current availability of data in the GSRE 1.0 and 1.1 can be viewed by clicking this link.

The raw version of GSRE 1.0 can be downloaded from datorium of the GESIS data archive for the social sciences. If using data from this version of GSRE 1.0 for your own work please use the following citation:

Richter, Thomas / Luca, Viola (2016), GSRE 1.0 - Global State Revenues and Expenditures Dataset, Raw Data, GESIS Data Archive, Cologne, https://dx.doi.org/10.7802/1290.

The extended version of GSRE 1.0 can be downloaded from datorium of the GESIS data archive for the social sciences. If using data from this version of GSRE 1.0 for your own work please use the following citation:

Richter, Thomas / Luca, Viola (2016), GSRE 1.0 - Global State Revenues and Expenditures Dataset, Extended Data, GESIS Data Archive, Colognehttps://dx.doi.org/10.7802/1290.

If citing GSRE 1.0 more generally as a dataset please use the following publication:

Lucas, Viola / Richter, Thomas (2016), State Hydrocarbon Rents, Authoritarian Survival and the Onset of Democracy: Evidence from a New Dataset, Research & Politics, 3 (3), https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2053168016666110.

GSRE 1.1, which is the latest release of the dataset, will be published with datorium during the final quarter of 2019. Please send an email to thomas.richter (at) giga-hamburg (dot) de in case you like to use this version of the dataset before official publication.

The user manual of the GSRE 1.0 dataset can be downloaded here.

If citing specifically from the user manual please use the following citation:

Richter, Thomas / Luca, Viola (2016), User Manual for the GSRE 1.0 - Global State Revenues and Expenditures Dataset, Hamburg: GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.

After publication of GSRE 1.1 the updated user manual can be accessed from this website.

Selected Publications using GSRE data:

Albrecht, Holger / Eibl, Ferdinand (2018), How to Keep Officers in the Barracks: Causes, Agents, and Types of Military Coups, International Studies Quarterly, 62 (2), https://doi.org/10.1093/isq/sqx085.

Eibl, Ferdinand / Lynge-Mangueira, Halfdan (2017), Electoral Confidence and Political Budget Cycles in Non-OECD Countries, Studies of Comparative International Development, 52 (1), https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12116-016-9230-x.

Eibl, Ferdinand / Lynge-Mangueira, Halfdan (2017), Constraints, Competition, and Competitiveness: Explaining the Non-linear Effect of Democratization on Political Budget Cycles, European Political Science Review, 9 (4), https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755773916000205.

Lucas, Viola / Richter, Thomas (2016), State Hydrocarbon Rents, Authoritarian Survival and the Onset of Democracy: Evidence from a New Dataset, Research & Politics, 3 (3), https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2053168016666110.

Eibl, Ferdinand / Lynge-Mangueira, Halfdan (2016), Constraints, Competition, and Competitiveness: Explaining the Non-linear Effect of Democratization on Political Budget Cycles, European Political Science Review, first view, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755773916000205.

Bank, André / Richter, Thomas / Sunik, Anna (2015), Long-Term Monarchical Survival in the Middle East: A Configurational Comparison, 1945-2012, in: Democratization, 22 (1), 179-200, https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2013.845555.

Thomas Richter (principal investigator), GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Thomas can be reached at thomas.richter (at) giga-hamburg (dot) de.

Viola Lucas (associate research fellow), GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Viola can be reached at viola.lucas (at) giga-hamburg (dot) de.

We are very grateful to Ferdinand Eibl (King's College London) for his unique contributions as a close collaborator in this project. The generation of this dataset wouldn’t have been possible without the invaluable support of Premela Isaac and Dorota Wyganowska from the IMF Archives in Washington DC. We are thankful to Hannes Bahrenburg, Christian Buerckel, Jessica Johansson, Frederik Knirsch, Sabrina Maaß, Jessica Noll, Alexandra Reinicke, Nikolai Röhl and Christiane Thier for their excellent research assistance and Andrew Crawford for website management.

Martin Beck (Syddansk Universitet), Daniel Lambach (Universität Duisburg-Essen) and Tim Wegenast (Universität Konstanz) provided crucial advice and support at different stages of the project.